Each foot contains 26 bones, which form two arches. The longitudinal arch runs the length of the foot, and the transverse arch runs the width. The bones of the arch are primarily held together by the shape with which they fit with each other and by fibrous tissues known as ligaments that serve to hold the bones to each other. The muscles of the foot, along with a tough, sinewy tissue known as the plantar fascia, provide secondary support to the foot. There are also fat pads in the foot to help with weight-bearing and absorbing impact. Arch pain can occur whenever something goes wrong with the function or interaction of any of these structures.
The normal arch is made up of bones and joints, which are held tightly together, in a precise relationship. When this relationship is subjected to repeated abnormal weight, or the normal weight of a lifetime, the force breaks up this normal relationship, causing bones to shift and joints to buckle. This allows the arch to collapse, and produces pain. The ability of the arch to absorb the shock of each step is reduced, so that continued walking will eventually produce pain in the knee, hip, and lower back. All four of the above categories will eventually cause this to happen. Arch pain can also be a manifestation of heel spur or nerve injury in the heel area. There are also certain types of benign growths that can cause arch pain i.e. Plantar fibromatosis.
Arch pain symptoms could include any of the following, a dull, constant ache if the ligaments have been stretched, swelling or tenderness in the foot, redness or bruising in the event of a more serious injury, difficulty putting weight on the foot, sharp pain when the foot is turned or manipulated, tenderness when pressure is applied. Because the arch of the foot is such a complex structure, arch pain could be an indicator of several different types of injuries. Chronic illnesses such as arthritis could also cause arch pain, and depending on the cause or source of your pain, you may experience discomfort in a variety of different areas. Ask a doctor if you believe you may have injured your foot arch.
In a person of any age, the doctor will ask about occupational and recreational activities, previous foot trauma or foot surgery and the type of shoes worn. The doctor will examine your shoes to check for signs of excessive wear. Worn shoes often provide valuable clues to gait problems and poor bone alignment. The doctor will ask you to walk barefoot to evaluate the arches of the feet, to check for out-toeing and to look for other signs of poor foot mechanics.
Non Surgical Treatment
If you have arch pain, you need proper arch support. You can get arch support by purchasing custom shoe inserts that are made to support your feet. If you have flat feet or high arches, you can certainly benefit from arch support inserts. Take a look at your wet footprint; if you notice that your footprint is completely filled in, then you have flat feet. On the other hand, if there is a large crescent shape missing from your footprint, then you have high arches. Both of these conditions require proper support from a shoe insert. Foot Solutions You can also take care of your feet by avoiding high heels and flip-flops. If you must wear high heels, choose a heel that is two inches or less, and try to wear them only for short periods of time. Flip-flops provide very little support, so wear them only if you won?t be doing very much walking.
Surgery for flat feet is separated into three kinds: soft tissue procedures, bone cuts, and bone fusions. Depending on the severity of the flat foot, a person?s age, and whether or not the foot is stiff determines just how the foot can be fixed. In most cases a combination of procedures are performed. With flexible flat feet, surgery is geared at maintaining the motion of the foot and recreating the arch. Commonly this may involve tendon repairs along the inside of the foot to reinforce the main tendon that lifts the arch. When the bone collapse is significant, bone procedures are included to physically rebuild the arch, and realign the heel. The presence of bunions with flat feet is often contributing to the collapse and in most situations requires correction. With rigid flat feet, surgery is focused on restoring the shape of the foot through procedures that eliminate motion. In this case, motion does not exist pre-operatively, so realigning the foot is of utmost importance. The exception, are rigid flat feet due to tarsal coalition (fused segment of bone) in the back of the foot where freeing the blockage can restore function.
Warm up properly. This means not only stretching prior to a given athletic event, but a gradual rather than sudden increase in volume and intensity over the course of the training season. A frequent cause of plantar fasciitis is a sudden increase of activity without suitable preparation. Avoid activities that cause pain. Running on steep terrain, excessively hard or soft ground, etc can cause unnatural biomechanical strain to the foot, resulting in pain. This is generally a sign of stress leading to injury and should be curtailed or discontinued. Shoes, arch support. Athletic demands placed on the feet, particularly during running events, are extreme. Injury results when supportive structures in the foot have been taxed beyond their recovery capacity. Full support of the feet in well-fitting footwear reduces the likelihood of injury. Rest and rehabilitation. Probably the most important curative therapy for cases of plantar fasciitis is thorough rest. The injured athlete must be prepared to wait out the necessary healing phase, avoiding temptation to return prematurely to athletic activity.